Assembling Flowers and Cultivating Homes: Labor and Gender in Colombia
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Instead, she provides a nuanced analysis of how women use jobs in Colombia's flower industry to resist subordination at home and challenge traditional household structures where men control the household resources, including women's time and where domestic violence is widespread and accepted. This book will challenge us to rethink the relationships between the global economy and women's well-being.
It offers a textured account of how gendered forms of labor are not only at the heart of global competitiveness but are also an instrument for crafting new identities and options for women workers. Women, she finds, seek work in the flower companies, find satisfaction in their jobs, and use their monetary power to refashion gender relations. Add to Cart.
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Exploitation of Workers in Kenya Conclusion. Export References. R false. US International Trade Commission false.
World Bank false. Figure 1 reports weighted averages for the share of women in the agricultural labour force or economically active in agriculture in 5 major regions of the world. According to these data, women comprise just over 40 percent of the agricultural labour force in the developing world, a figure that has risen slightly since and ranges from about 20 percent in the Americas to almost 50 percent in Africa.
Even considering these data as lower bounds for the participation of women in the agricultural labour force, they do not support estimates above 60 percent except for a few countries. This concept is broader than employment in agriculture because it includes those unemployed but looking for work in the sector.
Note: The female share of the agricultural labour force is calculated as the total number of women economically active in agriculture divided by the total population economically active in agriculture. Regional averages are weighted by population.
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The global average is dominated by Asia. Within Asia, the sub-regional averages range from about 35 percent in South Asia to almost 50 percent in East and Southeast Asia. The Asian average is dominated by China, where the female share of the agricultural labour force has increased slightly during the past three decades. The female share in India has remained steady at just over 30 percent.
These very large countries mask changes in some smaller countries where the female share of the agricultural labour force appears to have increased dramatically, now exceeding 50 percent in Bangladesh. Other Asian countries such as Malaysia have seen declining female labour shares in agriculture.
Women make up almost 50 percent of the agricultural labour force in sub-Saharan Africa, an increase from about 45 percent in The averages in Africa range from just over 40 percent in Southern Africa to just over 50 percent in Eastern Africa. These sub-regional averages have remained fairly stable since , with the exception of Northern Africa, where the female share appears to have risen from 30 percent to almost 45 percent. The sub-regional data for Africa conceal wide differences between countries both in the share of female labour in agriculture and the trend.
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The South American countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru dominate the average and are responsible for most of the rising trend. The statement is often seen that women constitute 60 to 80 percent of the agricultural labour force in developing countries. A decade later, a number of country statements in a report from the Food and Agriculture Organization reported that women constitute between 70 and 90 percent of the agricultural labour force in many sub-Saharan African countries FAO, Similar statements are still being made today for all developing countries Action Aid; Gates Foundation fact sheet.
Although the available data show that women play a significant — although highly varying - role in the agricultural labour force, the estimates reported above do not represent current conditions in the group of developing countries as a whole.
Assembling Flowers and Cultivating Homes: Labor and Gender in Colombia by Greta Friedemann-Sánchez
It is also the most important sector for women in East Asia and South-East Asia but nearly equally so with services. Agriculture is much more important for women than for men in terms of employment in South Asia and the Middle East. The figure shows that both the level of employment and the distribution of employment in different sectors vary substantially across regions. Definitions of adult labour force differ by country, but usually refers to the population aged 15 and above.