Hyphenated Techniques in Grape and Wine Chemistry

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ISBN cloth: alk. This book presents the principal modern applications of hyphenated techniques used in the analysis and study of grape, wine, and grape-derivative products. This book, composed of 8 chapters, features the modern applications of hyphenated techniques in the analysis and study of the chemistry of grape, wine, and. Hyphenated Techniques in Grape and Wine Chemistry. Hyphenated Techniques in Grape and Wine Chemistry presents the modern applications of hyphenated techniques in the analysis and study of the chemistry of. The aim of this pre- treatment is to obtain a matrix similar to the wine, but free of volatile compounds potentially affecting adsorption and widely varying among the wines.

The same procedure is used to prepare the internal standard solutions at similar concentrations.

Slashes and hyphens - Mass Spectrometry Terms

For the calculation of the critical LC and the detection LD limits e. The signals corresponding to these dedicated solutions, together with the signal corresponding to the blank solution, are used in regression. This procedure decreases the difference between the experimentally measured blank and the intercept of the regression line Lavagnini and Magno, The quantification limit LQ can be estimated using the Eurachem approach , which states that LQ is the analyte concen- tration for which the experimental relative standard deviation of the responses reaches a specific level, for example level 0.

Analysis is carried out in single ion recording SIR mode. In the optimized chromatographic conditions proposed by Fedrizzi et al. Increase of the pH matrix at a value of 7, performed in order to reduce interference in the analysis due to presence of hexanoic acid, can reduce the 3-mercaptohexyl acetate hydrolysis. They can, in their turn, oxidize thiols Rigaud et al. Hydrolysis of 3-MHA and oxidation of thiols seem not clearly detectable. A constant increase of 3-MHA signal when pH is increased is not always confirmed by concomitant decrease of the correspondent alcohol 3-MH. Such behaviour could indicate a dominant matrix effect on both 3-MH and 3-MHA with a possible influence of pH, even if a rather stable signal of internal standard 6-Mercaptohexanol 6- MH is observed.

For a solution at pH 7, a maximized signal for 3-MA and a slightly reduced one for 3-MH — but still fitting the sensitivity expected for this method — in respect to the situation working at pH of wine, were observed Fedrizzi et al. Data of peak areas reported in Table 5. Several other wine components may potentially affect the fiber sampling. In the presence of a remarkable sugar content an increase of the peaks is observed. Also a different presence of polyphenols may influence the adsorption on the fiber due to possible competition with redox reactions Murat et al.

Finally, a competition with different volatiles, in particular the fermentation esters, in the adsorption on the fiber may also occur Murray, ; Lestremau et al. In any case, it has taken into account that the richer polyphenols wines are also the fruity esters poorest ones. It is worth mentioning that it is necessary to cali- brate the method every time the fiber is changed using a wine pre-treated with charcoal, spiked with different quantities of standard solutions, as established in the calibration method proposed Fedrizzi et al.

For SPE extraction Fedrizzi et al. The pH value of the sample is adjusted to 7. Linearity and sensitivity have been investigated using the same pre-treated wine employed for controlling the other two quoted methods and the same calibration solutions. The optimized experimental conditions of sample temperature St , flow rate Fr , purge flow time Pft , trap temperature Tt and desorption time Dt are reported in Table 5. Solution pH 7.

Despite this, the results are good enough to be applied in the quantification of these compounds in most wines characterized by tropical fruit scents. They satisfy the oenolog- ical requirements providing a suitable LD for each analyte. HS-SPME provides slightly higher sensitivity and it has the advantage of being more easily applicable.

Data of 3-MHA Figure 5.

Slashes and hyphens

By performing analysis of the same sample, PT shows slightly higher data in comparison with those from the other two methods, probably due to better extraction of the analytes. PT sampling coupled with GC- MS analysis is a simple method applicable in the analysis of both 3-MH and 3-MHA; moreover, it provides lower detection limits which are close to sensory thresholds.

Possible working conditions include the following: He as carrier gas at a flow rate of 1. Calibration curves for each TFSV are prepared according to the internal standard method using 6-MH as internal standards and the same type of pre-treated matrix, i.

Wine Making: The Art & Chemistry of Wine

The aim of this pre-treatment is to obtain a matrix similar to the wine, but free of volatile compounds potentially affecting adsorption and widely varying among the wines. References Abbott, N. An investigation by sensory descriptive analysis, Am. Andres, A. A, , 83— Food Sci. Anocibar Beloqui, A. Aprea, E. Mass Sp. Arthur, C. Bitteur, S.

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Sauvignon, J. Food Chem. Blanch, P. Blanchard, L. Bobet, R. Bocchini, P. Acta, 1 , 37— Boelens, M. Boido, E. Tannat: the typical red wine from Uruguay, J. Burmeister, M. Cabredo-Pinillos, S. Cardoso, D. Carlin, S. Thesis, University of Udine. Carrapiso, A. Chatonnet, P. Cordonnier, R. Cozzolino, D. Dambergs, R.

Acta, 1—2 , — Darriet, P. De la Calle, G. High Res. Dercksen, A. Diaz, P. A, 1—2 , — Di Stefano, R.


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Drawert, F. Ebeler, S.

Fang, Y. A, 2 , — Fedrizzi, B. Acta, 2 , — Comparison with results of other sampling procedures via a robust regression, Anal. DOI: Ferreira, V. Flamini, R. Flanzy, C.


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