Tatar manual: Descriptive grammar and texts with a Tatar-English glossary

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Published by Indiana University, Bloomington About this Item: Indiana University, Bloomington, Soft cover.

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Condition: Very Good. In English and Tatar. Research and studies in Uralic and Altaic languages. The present book is designed as a manual of the Tatar language. It consists of three parts. Part one contains a descriptive grammar written along the same lines as my Buriat Grammar Indiana University Publ. Hall, Jr.

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And as the FTC, they identified there, "the image of Saint"? Banal desire somehow to declare itself? The above mentioned examples show that the expressiveness of this punctuation technic is also reflected in the structure and intonation of the series, which are built in such a way that the last sentence has the highest degree of emotional tension [ 10 ].

Thus, doubting is quite an effective expressive technique contributing to the establishment of close contact with the reader and encouraging him to a certain response. This technique involves the demonstration of rapture and elation by the author that is encoded by an exclamation mark in the printed speech. In Tatar, Russian and English net texts this technique is widely used among users of social nets, blogs and forums:.

Great pictures!!

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And they are really cool!!! Well done!! Guys, be as happy as in the photo!! The example makes it obvious that the author of this message is in a state of euphoria. Admiration leads to expression of positive emotions of the writer and, subsequently, has an emotional impact on the reader, motivating him to a specific response:. Our grandfathers, great-grandfathers shed blood is not for us to be enemies! Our people - great! We should be proud that we are Slavs!

Bottom line is I really enjoyed after the ceremony part! I got to talk to my guests and went to do the videotaping part, and guess what! Text Keefleregez Shepp!

Elmaep, Colin, Sagit borchularni drafted kuep selamet bekhetle country yashegez!!! Ata-analarigiznin balalarigiznin igelegen sang yashegez shower!!!! Gas yasherge end Donji!!!

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This technique consists in creating a summing effect of the interaction of various punctuation marks, which greatly exceeds the effectiveness of the marks in the case of separate use of each of them [ 12 ]. The synergistic effect of the following punctuation marks should be recognized as the most productive in increasing the expressiveness of a net text:. Along with the separative and distinctive functions, the question mark in net texts can also perform an expressive function, particularly in the case of its repeated usage [ 13 ]. Synergy of question marks is intended to express strong feelings of surprise, curiosity and, with it, the emotional and evaluative attitude of the author to the expressed thought.

Anin bashi jugari bulip bezge ni faida da, bash jugari bulmasa ni faida?????????? Such number of question marks in the above examples leads to the expression of strong emotional tension and encourages the reader to consequent respond. Multiple exclamation marks arranged in a row, visually highlight a certain part of the text and express a wide range of emotional reactions [ 14 ].

In the examples below, two, three and four exclamation marks correspond to emotions such as fascination "!! In the example Summer!!!!! I'm in love with you! Never leave me!!!!! It is important to note that using such marks, the writer does not think about their number, and, most likely, his choice is guided by the rule "the more marks, the more emotions". Such sentences are expressive not only due to the transmission of various intonations to speech, but also their graphic arrangement capable of attracting the attention of even a casual reader.

Thus, the analysis showed that the more exclamation marks are involved in the technique, the stronger is the expressive nature of the printed speech.

Primary texts

In some cases, a combination of multiple question marks is used in cooperation with exclamation marks to make the speech in net texts more expressive and emotional. Let us consider several examples in which such punctuation combinations have a high degree of expressiveness thanks to the expression of various feelings and emotions. Well, that's where in an empty room can take mosquitoes? The analysis of the material showed that this technique in Tatar and Russian net texts expresses, for the most part, negative emotions.

In English, this function is performed by the question mark in combination with an emoticon [ 16 ]. Often in net texts dots act in combination with the characters "? Consider the following example:. Your husband "goes to work", but what he's busy, if no orders?

Tatar language

Strolling through the office? Roams about in the office?.. In both sentences the question mark expresses a request for information. In the second sentence it is accompanied by dots, which likely encode a pause of silence. Kaida, kichan, kem belen besga izmenili?.. Where, when, whom were we cheated by?.. In this example, the expressivity of the question mark is supplemented by the expressiveness of the dots, transmitting a pause of reflection.

The dots here suggest a subtext of "mistrust" and "irony": it can be seen by the dual use of brackets, which, in Russian and Tatar net texts acquire a new function — expression of a "smile" or "laughter". Probably, the author expresses his attitude to the preceding statement which our example was a response to: it seems absurd and ridiculous to him [ 18 ]. Thus, the analyzed examples suggest that the synergy of a question mark and dots contributes not only to the expression of a question, but of a hidden suggestive meaning as well. The main use of this method is associated with expression of mixed emotions.

Nothing can be worse than callousness!!!!!! The synergistic effect of these two characters can be ambivalent, i. For example: Happy Birthday!!.. So, it becomes apparent that such combination of punctuation marks in the examples, though the same in graphical form, is not in its functionality. In the first sentence the exclamation mark transmits positive emotional enthusiasm and inspiration of the author on the occasion of congratulations on his birthday , and the dots complement this connotation by a short pause, which encodes the incompleteness of the statement and its possible continuation traditionally, with wishes of health, happiness, love and so on.

OLAC resources in and about the Tatar language

In the second sentence the exclamation mark conveys the author's feeling of "resistance", which is complemented by a pause of silence encoded by dots in writing. Thus, the synergy of punctuation marks is an effective method of transmission of emotional state of communicants, which is able to convey the hidden meanings and implications incomprehensible to communicants in case of absence of one of the components of the synergistic composition.

Distancing of the punctuation mark from the final letter of the statement is separation of the former from the latter by a space. It is important to note that this phenomenon can hardly be called a misprint, as in the analysis of practical material we have found out that it has a pragmatic function.

Let us consider several examples in which authors distance the punctuation mark from the statement its final letter , which is a violation from Tatar, Russian, and English grammatical rules. However, in net texts this technique is used to express a specific intonation and various connotations. Tatarlar dimessen uzegezne There is a rule: no matter how many guys do not laugh at girls fasting itself vanilla sayings and pictures, no matter how much they were laughing over their love fotkatsya in the mirror especially the toilet - they are still there is such!

In these examples the authors might use this technique to make the statement more categorical. The categorical character of the utterance is achieved by the gap, which, in our opinion, encodes a short pause for reflection and allows the reader to read and understand the meaning of the message, and then see the emotional and evaluative attitude of the author to the statement. In our opinion, the distanced question mark is significantly more expressive, because in oral speech it corresponds to a longer pause at the end of the utterance.

Therefore, when reading such a sentence, the recipient gets the opportunity to "linger" on the statement and get deeper to the point. Our research has showed that in a net text punctuation marks can be subjected to various modifications, as a result of which they acquire new functional features. One should note, however, that Bolshevist Russia did not recognize official languages as such; however, there were a number of languages that could be used in trial in some republics. The usage of Tatar declined from the s onwards.

In the s, the study and teaching of Tatar in the public education system was limited to rural schools.

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