The Nature of Intellectual Styles (Educational Psychology)

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Received Nov 20; Accepted Dec 8. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Abstract In the 20th century, a large number of psychological theories of intellectual styles were developed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Keywords: Choice of style theories, Types of categorizations of styles theories, Styles in practice. Introduction During the second half of the 20th century, a large number of psychological theories of intellectual styles were developed. The included reviews and summary works The included reviews and summary works Curry ; Messick ; Schmeck ; Jonassen and Grabowski ; Rayner and Riding ; Sternberg and Grigorenko ; Coffield et al.

Proposed taxonomy of categorizations Type A.

The Nature of Intellectual Styles (Educational Psychology) (Educational Psychology Series)

Co-ordinate categorization of style theories with reference to sorting Categories are defined as separate co-ordinate categories there is no hierarchical relationship between the categories , so that a sorting of the theories of styles into these categories is achieved with the categorization. Type B. Hierarchical categorization of style theories with reference to taxonomy Categories are hierarchically constructed around one or more key characteristics of the theories, so that with the categorization, a taxonomy in relation to which theories of styles may be categorized is set up.

Type C. Hierarchical categorization of individual styles across theories with reference to taxonomy Categories are hierarchically constructed around several key characteristics of individual styles, so that a sorting of individual styles across theories into a notional over-taxonomy is achieved with the categorization, so to speak. Type A co-ordinate categorizations with the classical disciplines of psychology as their point of departure It is apparent that a number of the analyzed reviews Jonassen and Grabowski ; Rayner and Riding ; Sternberg and Grigorenko ; Coffield et al.

Table 1 Co-ordinate type A categorizations of theories of style with the classical disciplines of psychology as their common categories.

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Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Coffield et. Table 2 Extract of Coffield et al. Families of learning styles — description a Example theories b 1. Learning styles and preferences are largely constitutionally based including the four modalities VAKT visual, audio, kinesthetic, tactile Learning styles Dunn and Dunn Mind styles Gregorc ; Hemisphere dominance Torrance in Torrance et al.

Learning styles are one component of a relatively stable personality type Personality types Myers-Briggs in Myers and McCaulley 4. Learning styles are flexible stable learning preferences Learning styles Kolb Decision making styles Kirton 5. Type C hierarchical categorization across theories of styles with reference to taxonomy As early as , Messick stated that if an agreement of a core understanding of cognitive style could be reached within the field of theories of styles, it would be possible to lay down different types of style dimensions.

The three style types …. Learning approach Deep Surface Achieving b. Mode of thinking Holistic Analytic Integrative d. Mind style Concrete random Concrete sequential Abstract random, Abstract sequential f. Decision-making style Innovation Adaptation g.

Natural and Scope of Educational Psychology and Need for Psychological Approach in Education

Conceptual tempo Reflectivity Impulsivity h. Structure of intellect Divergent thinking Convergent thinking i. Perceptual style Field-independence Field-dependence j. Type I intellectual styles I. Type II intellectual styles I. Closing remarks The different types of categorizations of theories of styles proposed may provide practitioners with useful information on the overall orientation of theories as well as stability, pedagogical amenability of different styles in connection with the intended use of styles in pedagogical work or other areas of practice. Footnotes Competing interests The author declares that there are no competing interests.

References Biggs J. Student Approaches to Learning and Studying. The University of Learning. Beyond Quality and Competence in Higher Education. London: Kogan Page Limited; Should we be using Learning Styles? What Research has to say about Practice. Learning Style in Continuing Medical Education. Ottawa, Canada: Council on Medical Education; Practical approaches for Grades 7— London: Allyn and Bacon; In: Schmeck RR, editor. Learning Strategies and Learning Styles. Perspectives on Individual Differences.

New York: Plenum Press; Applications of Styles in Educational Instruction and Assessment. New York: Springer; Student Learning Styles Questionnaire.

The Mind Styles Model. The Nature of Human Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill; Handbook of Individual Differences. Learning and Instruction. The generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo. J Abnorm Psychol. Adaptors and innovators: A description and a measure. J Appl Psychol. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; Cognitive styles as environmentally sensitive individual differences in cognition: A modern synthesis and applications in education, business and management.

Psychol Sci Public Interest. The nature of cognitive styles: Problems and promise in educational practice. Educ Psychol. En antologi om stil-teorier [Styles of learning and thinking. A Historical review of the styles literature. Mental self-government: Development of the additional democratic learning styles using Rasch measurement models. J Appl Meas.

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Learning styles: concepts and evidence. Towards a categorization of cognitive styles and learning styles. Cognitive styles — an overview and integration. International Perspectives on Individual Differences. Stamford, Connecticut: Ablex Publishing Corporation; Mental self-government: A theory of intellectual styles and their development. Hum Dev. Thinking Styles. A capsule history of theory and research on styles.

Perspectives on Thinking, Learning, and Cognitive Styles. London: Lawrence Earlbaum Publishers; The regulation of constructive learning processes. Br J Educ Psychol. Origins of Cognitive Style.


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In: Scheerer C, et al. Theory, Research, Promise. The Malleability of Intellectual Styles. London: Cambridge University Press; A threefold model of intellectual styles. Educ Psychol Rev. Handbook of Intellectual Styles. Preferences in Cognition, Learning, and Thinking. New York: Springer Publishing Company; Articles from SpringerPlus are provided here courtesy of Springer-Verlag.

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Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Learning oriented Rayner and Riding Activity oriented Sternberg and Grigorenko Jonassen and Grabowski Learning approaches, strategies, orientations and conceptions of learning Coffield et al. Learning styles and preferences are largely constitutionally based including the four modalities VAKT visual, audio, kinesthetic, tactile. Learning styles Dunn and Dunn Mind styles Gregorc ; Hemisphere dominance Torrance in Torrance et al.

Perception styles Witkin Conceptual tempo Kagan Intellectual structure Guilford Learning styles are one component of a relatively stable personality type.


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